By Nora C. England
This is often the 1st full-length reference grammar of Mam, a Mayan language spoken this present day by means of over 400,000 humans within the western highlands of Guatemala and the kingdom of Chiapas, Mexico. the results of over 3 years of in depth fieldwork in Guatemala, A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language relies at the dialect of Mam spoken via 12,000 humans in San Ildefonso Ixtahuacan within the division of Huehuetenango, Guatemala. England organizes A Grammar of Mam based on complementary rules: to research Mam following primarily conventional degrees of grammatical description and to provide fabric in this kind of means that the historical past info worthy for realizing every one subject of dialogue shall were formerly supplied. as a result, England's research of the sound process and morphophonemic approaches of Mam is by way of an outline of the features of root, inflectional, and derivational morphology. Chapters on word constitution precede chapters on sentence-level syntax. A Grammar of Mam is of specific curiosity in examining a Mayan language that's either syntactically and morphologically ergative and that's cutting edge towards strengthening the ergative process. certainly in any respect degrees of linguistic association Mam is leading edge, and for that reason it truly is uniquely attention-grabbing either traditionally and theoretically.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Mam, a Mayan Language (Texas linguistics series)
Peels phez Andr~s P~rez. ' 'Once upon a time there was a toad that had its 0-jaw-lee-t t-uuk' ALSO FAR-pos adj rec 3sA-COME WATER 2p-RN/agt-2p jun a7 3s-0FFSPRING 3s-RN/in ONE WATER b'aj tzii7 ch'el 3sE-dir FINISH BEAK kyee7yax t-jaq' t-u7n nim-aal xaq PARROT 3s-RN/caus DEM ROCK 3sA-GO UP-caus-pas ONE ROCK PRECIOUS 3s-RN/below 'The beak of the parrot was finished because of the yooxh tx'otx' t-kub' rock. ' RED EARTH 3sE-GO OOWN (3-8) 'A precious stone appeared below the red earth. ' (3-3) Liixh Andr~s ax LOC PRED-3sA ONE TIME ONE TOAD LOC PRED-3sA (3-2) Comitative 'And we started to talk with Location: (3-1) BEFORE prog-lpA-dir-but BE-lp ex TALK-inf 3s-RN/com INTENS 'to, of, at, for' t-iib'(aj) axi7n ojtxa 3s-EXPLANATION 3s-RN/thematic CORN n-qo-ok-ka (agent, causative, instrument) t-e(e) t-i7j 'an explanation about corn in the old days' ion' t-u7n Thematic juun t-xileen (patient, thematic) t-uuk'(al) 73 maax-tzan k-tzaaja-l asta maax t-wi7 UP TO-well 3sA-COME-pot UP TO TO THERE 3s-RN/above witz HILL Instrument ma 0-aq'naa-n Kyeel t-u7n asdoon 3sA-WORK-ap Miguel 3s-RN/inst HOE hoe.
Lowing rules: 1. ' 'take/bring' ma txi wii7na 'I took it' Glottal stops which occur before glottalized consonants usually disappear: (~, ~, ~, 1, The participle, processive, and ~, ~), the glottal stop moves to that long vowel. 2. If the root has a long vowel followed by a nonresonant consonant, the glottal stop is deleted. 3. If the root has a short vowel, the glottal stop fol lows the stem formative vowel, which is short. - 3. ' b'iyo7kj- 'go and Mam, and their special characteristics. spond to root classes with the exception that positionals are a root class only.
1), it solute form. may seem that a long vowel is inserted where there was no These are described below, and are identified according to the classification used in the Ixtahuacan dic vowel previously, and it is also necessary to know both the tionary prepared at the PLFM and currently in press (Maldona possessed and unpossessed forms to know the base form of the do, Ord6nez, Ortiz). A few additional classes of nouns are root. tz'lom defined according to semantic or syntactic properties. Nouns function as the head of a noun phrase (see chapter Example: 'plank' n-tz'aalma-ya //tz'alom// 5), and can be modified by adjectives, determiners, measure 'my plank' base form phrases or plurals, and relative clauses.