By Johan van Benthem
Intensional common sense is the technical research of such "intensional" phenomena in human reasoning as modality, wisdom, or stream of time. those all require a richer semantic photograph than normal fact values in a single static setting. this type of photo is equipped by way of so-called "possible worlds semantics," a paradigm that is surveyed during this e-book, either as to its exterior assets of motivation and as to the interior dynamics of the ensuing application. particularly, ^IManual of Intensional Logic^R provides the key "classical" themes, together with modal good judgment, demanding common sense, and conditional common sense, all of which illustrate motivations coming from philosophy and linguistics. The booklet additionally discusses fresh computational functions in computing device technological know-how and AI. eventually, ^IManual of Intensional Logic^R takes up contemporary advancements within the research of language and data making themselves felt within the quarter. The ebook examines the function of partial information--with illustrations drawn from assorted branches of Intensional Logic--and numerous affects stemming from present theories of the semantics of usual language, concerning generalized quantifiers and theories of varieties.
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Extra resources for A Manual of Intensional Logic
Such bridges between our kind of formal semantics and the models of science are regrettably scarce. Jens-Erik Fenstad has suggested various interesting analogies between the semantics of this chapter and scientific uses of parallel worlds that might be pursued. One such program was proposed already earlier in the seventies by Albert Dragalin at Moscow, concerning axiomatizations for various physical modalities in space-time. (See V. B. ) II Recent Developments 1 Computational Applications The main emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on the original motivations from philosophy and linguistics guiding the development of Intensional Logic.
Another prominent topic in the current literature again reflects an older philosophical concern. Once individuals are gathered into groups, various forms of collective knowledge come into play. For instance, note the practical difference in a room filled with spies who each know where the secret document is hidden, but no more, and then a similar situation where each spy knows that the others know that location too. DjDfc •••
A Ov^ A . . A perceptive early study of this notion is D.
In any case, the issue of complexity and computational plausibility is a large one, which deserves much deeper discussion. As it is largely orthogonal to Intensional Logic per se, however, we shall not pursue this theme here. We conclude by pointing out another moral of the above. Actual knowledge is knowledge in action, in an environment of time and communication. If we are to really understand this phenomenon, we will have to go beyond the usual "piecemeal strategy": the interaction of various intensional logics in this setting may even be more interesting than the individual logics by themselves.