By Jian Kang
Over the previous twenty years there were many significant new advancements within the box of city sound atmosphere. Jian Kang introduces and examines those key advancements, including:
- the improvement of prediction tools for city sound propagation
- establishment and alertness of noise-mapping software
- new noise keep an eye on measures and layout methods.
Also coated is the hot ecu directive on noise and the giant activities it has led to throughout Europe.
As the significance of soundscape, acoustic convenience and sound atmosphere layout became generally recognized, Urban Sound Environments is a completely necessary publication for college kids and practitioners in quite a lot of fields, from city making plans and panorama via to structure and acoustics.
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Additional info for Urban Sound Environment
7) With the increase of σ, L eq, T becomes higher, since in the decibel additions the high levels become dominant. For example, for traffic noise, L Aeq, T is close to L 30 if σ is 4–5dB. If L 1 is much higher than the average level, say by 20dB, L eq, T could be close to L 1 (Zhen 2000). However, in some cases, L eq,T still cannot reflect the sound variations sufficiently. For example, a short impulse at night is rather disturbing, but may not be shown if L eq,night is used. 8) The values of a and b are affected by a number of factors, such as road and street conditions.
12 Evaluation of noise for interior spaces Noise criterion (NC) provides a single-number rating of the acceptability of background noise in interior spaces, taking into account perceived loudness or annoyance as well as speech interference (Beranek 1957). An NC value is obtained by plotting the octave band SPL onto the reference curves and determining the lowest curve that is nowhere exceeded by the plotted octave band levels. Revised curves were later developed, including preferred noise criterion (PNC) curves, which extend to a lower frequency and more emphasis is placed on low-frequency noise (Beranek et al.
H is the effective height of barrier (m), namely the barrier height above the line between source to receiver. 16) For a single point source, Kurze and Anderson (1971) gave a simplified equation to calculate the performance of an infinitely long barrier. 5, experimental data show that there is an upper limit of 24dB (Rathe 1969). 17) the ground effect is not considered. Unless the receiver is much higher than the ground, say more than 2m, the effect of ground reflection should be calculated by applying the above method for the image of the source/receiver (Maekawa 1968; Ekici 2004), if the ground is perfectly reflective.